Why The United States Dominates Nobel – Floridanewstimes.com

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More than eight of the 13 Nobel laureates this year are American citizens, expanding the historic trend linked to the power of American academia and the ability to attract the world’s top talent.

American universities consistently dominate the “Global Top 100” rankings, with a mix of gorgeous donations and a private “Ivy League” with top-notch state universities.

Since the first Nobel was awarded in 1901, the United States has won 400 medals, followed by the United Kingdom with 138 medals and Germany with 111 medals. These numbers include people from multiple countries.

“I am truly grateful for the opportunity given to me in this country,” said Ardem Patapoutian, co-winner of the 2021 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work on touch-related neural receptors in the United States. Is stated as follows. Press conference after his victory.

An Armenian-American who grew up in Lebanon acknowledged his success with the University of California’s publicly funded system, where he earned a bachelor’s degree and postdoc, and the Scripps Institute, which has two bases. rice field. Decades.

The University of California also has David Julius, a co-winner of the University of California, San Francisco. In total, UC staff and faculty members have won 70 Nobels. This is one of the totals earned by France, the fourth largest country.

Basic research

Atsushi Manabe, co-winner of this year’s Physics Awards, who left Japan in the 1950s for groundbreaking research on climate models in Princeton, NJ, could go where curiosity led him in the United States. I told reporters that I was able to do it. To his success.

Co-winner of chemistry, David McMillan is also a professor at Princeton University, who moved from Scotland to the United States in the 1990s and received a bachelor’s degree from Maria Ressa, who won the Filipino American Peace Award in 1986. ..

Monday’s Economics Awards were shared by Canadian-American David Card, Israeli-American Joshua Angrist (both from Princeton University), and Dutch-American Guido Invens (Stanford University).

Funding basic research, defined as research aimed at improving understanding of scientific theory and subject matter, is central to America’s victory, said David Baltimore, co-winner of the 1975 Nobel Prize in Medicine. I told AFP.

This is a “trailing indicator”. This is because, compared to applied research, dividends can often be paid in unpredictable ways after years or decades.

“It’s also the strength of our research institutes and universities that dates back to the founding of Harvard University centuries ago, and their continued support is uninterrupted,” said the California Institute of Technology. Baltimore, an honorary president and prominent professor of biology, added.

The focus on basic research in the United States dates back to the aftermath of World War II and the founding of the National Science Foundation in 1950. Federal funding I went to college today.

Philanthropy and private donations are also playing an increasingly important role in financing.

China is catching up with the United States in terms of total research funding ($ 469 billion compared to $ 569 billion adjusted for purchasing power parity in 2017), but challenges related to academic freedom and the ability to attract talented people I have. American Chemical Society.

Rewarding youth and immigrants

Just as a rich country with a strong sports infrastructure dominates international competition like the Olympics, being the world’s number one economy makes the United States a science powerhouse.

“For example, scientists will find more employment opportunities not only in academia, but also in industry, government laboratories, and other opportunities,” Chen told AFP.

Mark Kastner, an emeritus professor of physics at MIT, added that universities in the United States have a long history of providing their own laboratories to talented young researchers.

“In places like Europe and Japan, there were large groups led by very senior professors, and young people did not intervene until they retired, and by that time they no longer had their best ideas. I don’t necessarily have it, “he said.

For example, Harvard neurobiologist Catherine Dulac won the 2021 Breakthrough Prize for her research on parental instincts, but for exactly this reason and for sexism, she decided to return to France in her twenties. She told AFP last year that she refused.

Looking to the future, some are concerned that the decline in immigrants could challenge US excellence.

Stefano Bertuzzi, who emigrated from Italy and is now the CEO of the American Society for Microbiology, told AFP:

But lately, he and Kastner have been concerned about the rising trend of alien exclusion and nationalism, which keeps the United States away from the destination of choice.

This is especially true for Chinese students who came under the scanner during the administration of former President Donald Trump because of espionage concerns.

© 2021 AFP

Quote: Why the United States Dominates Nobel (October 12, 2021) Obtained from October 12, 2021 https://phys.org/news/2021-10-states-dominates-nobels.html

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